What is CCIT convention? Explain major impediments for its implementation.
Ans: Comprehensive Convention
on International Terrorism (CCIT) is proposed first by India in 1996, the
ratification of it is in a limbo due to opposition from the US and OIS
“The CCIT was proposed by India in 1996. In
2016, despite the passage of two decades, we are yet to come to a conclusion.
As a result, we are unable to develop a norm under which terrorists shall be
prosecuted or extradited. Therefore it is my appeal that this General Assembly
acts with fresh resolve and urgency to adopt this critical
Convention,” India’s Foreign
Minister Sushma Swaraj told to a meeting of the United Nations General Assembly
New Delhi has
pushed for an intergovernmental convention to enhance prosecution and
extradition of terrorists since 1996. But, a series of terror attacks since the
beginning of the year in India as well as in Bangladesh seem to have revived
the Indian diplomatic establishment’s interest in voting and early adoption of
the anti-terror convention.
The move is also
a part of India’s strategy to isolate Pakistan internationally.
It is pertinent
to ask: what does India stand to gain from the CCIT and what makes the proposed
convention different from other existing (at least 14 till date) conventions?
uninitiated, the CCIT provides a legal framework which makes it binding on all
signatories to deny funds and safe havens to terrorist groups. The original
draft that was tabled in 1996 and discussed until April 2013, as The Hindu
reports, included following major objectives:
•To have a
universal definition of terrorism that all 193-members of the UNGA will adopt
into their own criminal law
•To ban all
terror groups and shut down terror camps
all terrorists under special laws
cross-border terrorism an extraditable offence worldwide.
efforts to push a global intergovernmental convention to tackle terrorism, the
conclusion and ratification of the CCIT remains deadlocked, mainly due to
opposition from three main blocs – the US, the Organization of Islamic
Countries (OIC), and the Latin American countries.
All three have
objections over the “definition of terrorism” (the most divisive of the
issues) and seek exclusions to safeguard their strategic interests. For
example, the OIC wants exclusion of national liberation movements, especially
in the context of Israel-Palestinian conflict. The US wanted the draft to
exclude acts committed by military forces of states during peacetime.
powerful objector, the U.S. has been worried about the application of the CCIT
to its own military forces especially with regard to interventions in
Afghanistan and Iraq. Changes to the draft, which The Hindu was able to access,
will clarify that “the activities of armed forces during an armed conflict”
will not be governed by the present convention.